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John Luik is a long-time tobacco industry consultant, who refers to himself as a government/professional/corporation consultant with interests in public policy, particularly the use of science in policy. He has a long track record of working with American and Canadian tobacco companies in the second-hand smoke issue. Luik has written numerous articles on the over-exaggeration of the health effects of second-hand smoke, has spoken at tobacco company conferences and workshops, has been employed as a anti-smoke-free spokesperson, is a featured columnist on the FORCES web site (a smokers' rights organization), and co-authored a book with Gio Gori, published by British Columbia's Fraser Institute, called "Passive Smoke: The EPA's Betrayal of Science and Policy" in which they blame the EPA for producing "junk science".

During Toronto's smoke-free bylaw campaign in 1999, Luik was asked by the Ontario Restaurant Association (now the Ontario, Restaurant, Hotel and Motel Association) and the Greater Toronto Hotel Association to speak against the proposed smoke-free bylaw at a press conference on May 26, 1999. Luik criticized a report on the link between lung cancer and second-hand smoke authored by Toronto's Medical Officer of Health. Although he has referred to himself as Dr. Luik, he is not a scientist: his doctorate is in philosophy.

As revealed in a June 2001 CBC TV investigative report, Luik has made false statements about his academic credentials (CBC T.V. News and Current Affairs, June 21, 2001; CBC Television). For example, during Luik's professorship at Brock University, the Dean of Humanities, Cecil Abrahams, discovered that Luik had lied about visiting professorships at other academic institutions and had added books or articles to his list of publications that did not exist. Abrahams (who is now Vice-Cancellor at West Cape University in South Africa) made the following statement about Luik during an interview for the CBC investigative report:

"I certainly would not trust anything John Luik says because he must be the worst case of fraud that I have come across and I've been an administrator at universities for a long period of time, both in North America and in Africa, and I think he's by far the worst case of fraudulent behaviour."

As previously mentioned, Luik has participated in tobacco industry workshops and strategy meetings. He is listed in a Canadian Tobacco Manufacturers' Council agenda for a June 22, 1998 meeting in Toronto to discuss strategies for public smoking initiatives. Luik was scheduled to speak on second-hand smoke research, along with another tobacco industry consultant, Pierre Lemieux.

Luik has also made his work-in-progress available to tobacco companies and organizations prior to publication. For example, in 1993 Luik was in correspondence with The Confederation of European Community Cigarettes Manufacturers Limited regarding the publication of his paper, "Pandora's Box - The Dangers of Politically Corrupted Science for Democratic Public Policy", informing the Confederation that his article had been submitted for publication to Philosophy and Public Affairs Journal. In an internal Confederation memo dated September 9, 1993 , the author of the memo instructs the tobacco company representatives that "until it [Luik's paper] is formally received, members should NOT [emphasis theirs] make use of the article for external lobbying purposes."

In a subsequent memo to the Confederation, dated November 9, 1993 , the author informs the Confederation members of Luik's concerns over proposed changes to his paper by the Philosophy and Public Affairs Journal, and relates Luik's request for input on how to proceed.

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Gio Gori is a U.S. tobacco industry consultant, dating back to the 1970s. He co-authored a book with John Luik published by the Fraser Institute in British Columbia called "Passive Smoke: The EPA's Betrayal of Science and Policy" in which they blame the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for producing "junk science" (please refer to Industry Campaigns). Gori is also an associate editor of the journal Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the same journal which published the Black Dog Pub ventilation pilot project study authored by another U.S. tobacco industry consultant, Roger Jenkins. The journal is partly funded by the U.S. tobacco company RJ Reynolds Inc. Please refer to the "Ventilation Solution" in Ontario to read more about the Black Dog ventilation project and other industry connections in play during the City of Toronto's smoke-free bylaw campaign in 1999.

Americans for Non-Smokers' Rights provides an excellent summary on Gio Gori, which can be accessed at www.no-smoke.org/fraser.html. Below is an excerpt from that summary:

Gio Gori is a former scientist at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) who now works as a consultant to the tobacco industry. Gori has the distinction of being one of 13 scientists who accepted big bucks from the Tobacco Institute to write letters to the editor attacking the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) landmark 1992 report, "Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking," which classified secondhand smoke a human carcinogen and resulted in an onslaught of strong local clean indoor air ordinances.

According to an August 4, 1998 article written by David Hanners in the Pioneer Press, Gori "was paid $20,137 for two letters to the Wall Street Journal, one letter to the British medical publication The Lancet, one letter to the NCI Journal and one opinion piece to the Wall Street Journal, records show. The opinion piece was rejected by the editors of the Wall Street Journal, but that didn't stop Gori from billing the law firm of Covington and Burling $4,137.50."

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Roger Jenkins is a chemist in the Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Although the ORNL is part of the U.S. Department of Energy, the lab and its researchers are available for private consulting work.

Jenkins' working relationship with American tobacco companies dates back to the 1970s. A simple search on his name ("jenkins r") on the Legacy Library web site produces over 4,000 industry document hits. Jenkins' specialty is conducting research for the industry that shows little or no exposure to second-hand smoke in indoor places. Sponsors for his research have also included the Council for Tobacco Research and the Centre for Indoor Air Research (CIAR), a tobacco industry-sponsored research centre that was dismantled as a result of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement.

Jenkins was a principal investigator for a 1994 CIAR project costing $1.2 million that was designed to show that second-hand smoke exposure in non-smokers was significantly lower than estimates used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and that "there are no good, existing data to determine 'real-life' personal exposures to ETS [environmental tobacco smoke] in non-smokers, particularly in the workplace." Click here to view the CIAR document. In another example, Jenkins received an $855,000 grant from the U.S. Tobacco Industry ETS Advisory Group.

Over the years, Jenkins has been asked to appear in hearings that oppose smoke-free measures. In 1997, Jenkins was called by the tobacco industry as an expert witness to give testimony to dispute the link between cancer and second-hand smoke during the Florida flight attendants lawsuit (also known as the Mildred Wiley lawsuit) brought against the industry. Judge Robert P. Kaye of the Dade County District Court Judge barred Jenkins from testifying because R.J. Reynolds' assistance with fieldwork and lab analysis made his second-hand smoke research suspect, thus giving him a pro-industry bias.

In Canada, Jenkins has provided assistance to the pro-ventilation opposition and the tobacco industry. During the City of Toronto's smoke-free bylaw campaign in 1999, Jenkins conducted a ventilation pilot project study at the Black Dog Pub in Scarborough, Ontario, designed to provide the Ontario Restaurant Association with evidence for their pro-ventilation stance. Later, the study, "Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Non-smoking Section of a Restaurant: A Case Study", was published in the December 2001 issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.

The opposition argued that since the results were published in a peer-reviewed journal, they would have to be taken seriously. Subsequent reviews of the published study agreed that there were flaws in methodology, misrepresentation of findings, and that many aspects of the findings had no relevance to the conclusions. In addition, funding for the research came from the Canadian Tobacco Manufacturers' Council funneled through the Hotel Association of Canada. (Please refer to the "Ventilation Solution" in Ontario for a more detailed explanation of the Black Dog Pub study and the tobacco industry's connections to it).

Jenkins and the ORNL continue to do research for Big Tobacco. In 2003, Jenkins received $750,000 from Philip Morris to conduct a study of indoor air pollution levels, including second-hand smoke. Jenkins is on the public record insisting that Philip Morris funding the project would not influence the study or its results (Munger F, "Oak Ridge lab to do smoke study," Knoxville News-Sentinel, February 13, 2003).

Jenkins has also been called as an expert witness on second-hand smoke for hospitality plaintiffs before the Ontario Health Services Appeal and Review Board.

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Derrick Finn is a Canadian tobacco industry consultant who, with Roger Jenkins, is an author of the Black Dog Pub ventilation study that is discussed in detail in the "Ventilation Solution" in Ontario section of our web site. Finn is named in Canadian Tobacco Manufacturers' Council memos, and in one dated March 30, 1998 (Re: Ventilation and Public Smoking. Consumers Gas Now On-Side in Toronto ), he is referred to as the CTMC's "technical advisor" on ventilation technology.

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Luc Martial was formerly part of the anti-tobacco advocacy movement in Canada before suddenly switching sides in June 2001 to work as a tobacco industry consultant. He was previously employed as a policy analyst with the Non-Smokers' Rights Association, as a public affairs manager with the Canadian Council on Smoking and Health, as the Director of the National Clearinghouse on Tobacco and Health and as well worked in the the Office of Research, Surveillance and Evaluation and the Office of Policy and Planning within the Tobacco Control Programme at Health Canada.

Since defecting to the side of the tobacco industry, Martial has had a few articles published on the FORCES web site (a smokers' rights organization) and in newspapers. In these articles, he is critical of health "extremists" and accuses tobacco-control advocates of being purely motivated by their own survival rather than putting the public interest first. He also likens the anti-movement in Canada to an "industry".

The following are articles written by Martial:

  • "Anti-Tobacco Extremists". The Financial Post. May 31, 2002, Editorial. FP 15.
  • "Memoirs of a Reluctant Advocate: An insider's account of tobacco control in Canada." FORCES web site

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Pierre Lemieux is a Canadian industry consultant who regularly uses libertarian and rights rhetoric in his critiques of tobacco regulation, denies that second-hand smoke causes diseases in non-smokers, and labels anti-tobacco advocates as the "anti-smoking jihad" (National Post article, April 3, 2003). He has also openly admitted to accepting research contracts from the tobacco industry.

To view a June 22, 1998 meeting agenda, entitled Evaluating Strategies in Response to Public Smoking Initiatives, at which Lemieux spoke on the economic impact of smoke-free legislation, click here.

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